Friday, March 23, 2012

NFPA 70 E Safety (Meltric) and OSHA


As the foremost consensus standard for electrical safety in the workplace, NFPA 70E is the primary resource for employers to use in determining how to comply with OSHA’s electrical
safety regulations. It is also used by OSHA and the courts in the investigation of injuries in order to assess whether or not the involved employers took reasonable steps and precautions to protect their employees.

The key elements of the standard are summarized below. Complete details should be obtained from the standard itself. In Canada, CSA recently published CSA Z462 ‘Workplace Electrical Safety’ which is based on and is harmonized with NFPA 70E. Key elements in CSA Z462 are essentially the same as those found in NFPA 70E.

Article 110 – General Requirements for Electrical Safety-Related Work Practices

Training Requirements (110.6)

Employees who may be exposed to electrical hazards must be specifically trained to understand the
hazards associated with electrical energy as well as the safety-related work practices and procedures required to provide protection from them. The level of training provided determines the tasks that an employee is qualified to perform.

Only specially ‘Qualified Persons’ may perform work on or near exposed and energized electrical conductors or circuit parts. The training requirements include:

  • How to recognize the potential hazards that exist
  • How to distinguish energized from non-energized parts
  • How to determine the voltage of exposed energized electrical conductors
  • The relationship between the hazard and potential injury
  • How to avoid exposure to the hazards
  • How to select appropriate personal protective equipment
  • Specific work practices and procedures to be followed
  • Emergency procedures for assisting victims of electrical incidents
  • How to perform a hazard/risk analysis
  • How to determine approach and flash protection boundaries
Electrical Safety Program (110.7)

Employers are required to implement and document an electrical safety program to direct employee activities in a manner that is appropriate for the different voltage, energy level and circuit conditions that may be encountered. This safety program shall include all electrical safety procedures, be documented in writing, and be made available to all employees. If work on or near energized electrical conductors and circuit parts operating at 50V or more is required, the safety program must:

  • Include a procedure that defines requirements and provides guidance for workers as they perform
    work on or near live parts

  • Identify the hazard/risk evaluation procedure to be used before work is started within the limited approach boundary of energized electrical conductors and circuit parts operating at 50 volts or more.

  • Include a job briefing process to inform employees of the hazards, proper procedures, special precautions, energy source controls and PPE requirements
Working While Exposed to Electrical Hazards (110.8)

Safety work practices consistent with the nature and extent of the associated electrical hazards shall be used to safeguard employees from injury while working on or near exposed electrical or circuit parts that are or can become energized. Two primary conditions are identified and addressed:

  1. Energized Electrical Conductors and Circuit Parts – Safe Work Condition. Live parts to
    which an employee might be exposed shall be put into an electrically safe work condition before employees can work on or near them, unless work on energized components can be justified
    according to section 130.1.

  2. Energized Electrical Conductors and Circuit Parts – Unsafe Work Condition. Only qualified persons may work on electrical conductors or circuit parts that have not been put into an electrically safe work condition.

The requirements for establishing an electrically safe work condition are indicated in Article 120, while
the requirements for work involving electrical hazards are covered in Article 130.

Article 120 – Establishing an Electrically Safe Work Condition

The most effective way to prevent an electrical injury is to completely remove the source of electrical
energy and eliminate the possibility of its reappearance. To do so, workers must identify and disconnect
all possible sources of electricity.

Process of Achieving an Electrically Safe Work Condition (120.1)
  1. Identify all possible sources of electric supply.
    Care should be taken to identify the possible presence of secondary sources.

  2. Properly interrupt the load current(s) and open the disconnecting device(s).
    Not all disconnecting devices are rated to interrupt load currents; this should only be done with a properly rated device.

  3. Verify deenergization through visual inspection of the disconnect contacts.
    Disconnecting means may sometimes fail to open all phase conductors when the handle is operated,
    so it is necessary to verify physical contact separation. If this requires removing the disconnect
    door or cover, appropriate PPE must be used.

  4. Apply lockout/tagout devices.
    This should be done in accordance with a formally established company policy.

  5. Use a voltage detector to test each conductor to which the worker may be exposed in
    order to verify deenergization.

    The voltage detecting device must be functionally tested both before and after taking the measurements in order to ensure that it is working satisfactorily.

  6. Circuit parts with induced voltages or stored electrical energy must be grounded.
    If the conductors being deenergized could contact other energized conductors or circuit parts, grounding devices rated for the available fault duty should be applied.
Justification (130.1)

Deciding to work on or near energized electrical conductors and circuit parts should be a last resort in
the workplace, after all other opportunities for establishing an electrically safe work condition have been exhausted. Work on energized parts at 50V or more should only be performed if the employer can demonstrate that deenergizing will introduce additional hazards or is not feasible due to equipment
design or operational limitations.

When non-routine work must be performed on energized parts, a detailed work permit must be
prepared before the work can start. The work permit must document the following elements and be approved by a responsible manager or safety officer:

  • A description of the circuit and equipment to be worked on
  • Justification for performing the work in an energized condition
  • A description of the safe work practices to be employed
  • Results of the shock hazard analysis
  • Determination of shock protection boundaries
  • Results of the flash hazard analysis
  • The flash protection boundary
  • The personnel protective equipment required for worker safety
  • Restricted access of unqualified persons from the work area
  • Evidence that the job briefing has been completed
Approach Boundaries to Energized Electrical Conductors or Circuit Parts (130.2)

Limited, restricted and prohibited approach boundaries must be determined in order to identify safe approach distances and the precautions required to minimize the possibility of shock.

Arc Flash Hazard Analysis (130.3)

An arc flash hazard analysis shall be done in order to protect personnel from the possibility of being injured by an arc flash. As part of this analysis, flash protection boundaries must be determined based on available bolted fault currents and the incident energy exposure level for personnel working within this boundary must be calculated.

Personal and Other Protective Equipment (130.7)

Employees working in areas where electrical hazards are present shall be provided with, and shall use, protective equipment that is designed and constructed for the specific part of the body to be protected
and for the work to be performed.

Requirements for eye, hand, head and body protection and/or v-rated tools are determined based on the hazard/risk category for the work to be performed. The standard provides a reference table indicating the hazard/risk category for many of the electrical tasks performed in industry and also provides a chart showing the protective equipment that is required for each hazard/risk category.

The tables below show the hazard/risk categories for several common tasks and describe the protective equipment required for each of the categories.

Panelboards or Switchboards Rated >240V and up to 600V
CB or fused switch operation with covers on RISK level 0
CB or fused switch operation with covers off RISK level 1
Work on energized parts, including voltage testing RISK level 2*

Other 600V Class (277V through 600V, nominal) Equipment
Opening hinged covers (to expose bare, energized parts) RISK level 1
Removal of bolted covers (to expose bare, energized parts) RISK level 2*

Typical Protective Clothing Systems
Long sleeve shirt and pants plus safety glasses, hearing protection and gloves for RISK level 0
Arc-rated (level 4) long sleeve shirt, pants, coverall, face shield, jacket, leather gloves
and work shoes for RISK level 1
Arc-rated (level 8) long sleeve shirt, pants, coverall, face shield, jacket, leather gloves
and work shoes for RISK level 2
Arc-rated (level 8) suit hood, long sleeve shirt, pants, coverall, jacket, leather gloves
and work shoes for RISK level 2*


Contact Flow Factor

Meltric Connectors for Pumps (NFPA70E)


For Safety convenience, use Meltric
deContactors to connect your Armstrong
pumps to your power source. As disconnect switches they can be used up to 200 amps. The switches have Poly or metal housings.
Meltric has handles or angle brackets for connecting to a junction box. AND, if you are worried about NFPA70, stop worring:
NFPA 70E Workplace Electrical Safety Standards apply to MCC’s and switchgear and also to plugs & receptacles used to connect welders, pumps, and other portable equipment. Because many of the plugs and receptacles currently in service have accessible live parts and can be hazardous if connected or disconnected under load, users must either update their equipment or follow cumbersome safety procedures in order to comply with NFPA 70E. AND in the National Electric code, Sections 430.102 – 430.109 of the National Electric Code require approved disconnecting means to be located in a readily accessible location within sight of the motor and driven equipment. With their UL & CSA ratings for “Motor Circuit Disconnect Switching” and “Branch Circuit Disconnect Switching”, Decontactor devices are an approved ‘line of sight’ disconnect switch for meeting this requirement. MELTRIC fills the bill for compliance!!

Decontactor plugs and receptacles are ideal for pump connections up to 60 hp or 200 amps. Using Decontactors to connect power to pumps instead of hard-wiring can reduce downtime related to pump servicing by 50% or more. A qualified technician can safely disconnect power to the pump simply by removing the Decontactor plug which can then be easily locked out to ensure safety. The technician can then service the pump in complete safety. When service work is complete the technician can reconnect power simply by plugging the Decontactor plug back into the receptacle.

  • No waiting for an electrician to perform field wiring
  • No “suiting-up” or extraordinary electrical precautions

Decontactor plugs and receptacles are designed and rated to make and break motor loads in complete safety while providing users with significant protection in the event of overloads or short circuits. Special protective equipment and training are not required to make and break connections.

  • Overload testing includes 50 opening and closing operations performed at 600% of full load motor ampacity with a power factor of 0.5 or less.

  • All hp-rated Decontactor devices are rated to close into and withstand short circuit currents up to 100kA in circuits protected with RK1 fusing.

Note: Although Decontactor plugs and receptacles are rated to safely make and break motor loads, they are not rated or intended for continuous use as a motor starter.

Sections 430.102 – 430.109 of the National Electric Code require approved disconnecting means to be located in a readily accessible location within sight of the motor and driven equipment. With their UL & CSA ratings for “Motor Circuit Disconnect Switching” and “Branch Circuit Disconnect Switching”, Decontactor devices are an approved ‘line of sight’ disconnect switch for meeting this requirement.

Decontactor plugs and receptacles are available with numerous handles, mounting angles, wall boxes, and other accessories. They may be used as in-line connectors or may be mounted on walls, panels, equipment, or even directly on the motor. This flexibility makes it simple to locate disconnects where they are easily visible and convenient to use.

Meltric DSN Series
  • 20A to 60A
  • Max 20hp
  • NEMA 4X
  • Low Cost, Compact
Switch & horsepower ratings
Compact, lightweight design
Automatic NEMA 4X watertightness
Most industrial applications
Wet or washdown environments
Plug & play electrical connections
UL 1682, UL Subject 2682,
CSA C22.2 No. 182.1
IEC 60309-1, 60947-3, AC22, AC23

Switch Rates
safety shutter/dead front
spring loaded butt contacts
silver-nickel contacts
lockout-tagout capabilty
quick break mechanism
enclosed arc chambers
spring-assisted terminals

NEMA 4X, IP66+IP67


Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Carlo Gavazzi Level Products

Flow Factor sells Carlo Gavazzi Level Products

Email Flow Factor with your pricing request!

Or call us toll free at 866-360-9830

Carlo Gavazzi comprehensive range of level detection products is well suited to solve most level control applications. Our range is able to detect conductive and non-conductive liquids, granulates, grains, and plastics.

We offer level sensors and level control relays for both on/off control and continuous monitoring of levels. We offer conductive probes and amplifiers, capacitive level sensors, ultrasonic sensors, magnetic level probes, and optical sensors.

Typical applications are for level control in wells and municipal water systems, protection of pumps, levels in grain elevators and feed conveyors, and level detection in vacuum delivery systems in the plastics industry.

Probe Assemblies and Amplifiers for monitoring levels of conductive liquids.
The sensors are delivered with standard length electrodes - these are cut off to suit the application. The teflon housing makes the sensor excel- lent for use in rough environments.Level sensor for measuring the level of conductive li- quids, i.e. max./min. control of charging for discharging. The function is determined by the amplifier relay used.

Excellent resistance to chemicals • Teflon housing • 1 to 4 electrodes • Isolated (teflon) or unisolated electrodes • Cable connection

• 1 1/2” pipe thread according to ISO 228/1-Gx”

Capacitive Probes and Amplifiers for monitoring levels of feeds, grains, and granular materials.

Capacitive level sensor for solids, fluids or granulated substances

• Polyester types, smooth or with 1 1/2” pipe thread • Teflon type with 1 1/2” pipe thread for rough

environments • For use with amplifier SV 150/250 or SV 160/260

Optical Probes and Amplifiers for monitoring levels of conductive or non-conductive liquids.
Optical level probe with modulated infrared light for detection of liquids. Self- contained unit has built-in amplifier. Separate transmitting and receiving elements
sealed behind the tip. Designed for direct mounting through the wall of a tank. The polysulphone tip is especially resistant to most acids and bases.
• Modulated light • Built-in amplifier • Output: NPN or PNP, 4-wire (NO & NC) • Housing: Stainless steel or nickel plated brass • Tip: Polysulphone or glass • High chemical resistance to most acids and bases • Liquid and electrical circuit completely isolated • Power supply: DC models 10 to 40 VDC


18mm, 30mm, and block style ultrasonic sensors with transistor or analogue output.
A self-contained multi function diffuse ultrasonic sensor with a sensing range of 600 to 6000 mm. The analog output is easily set up in 2 setpoints, pos./neg. slope and adjusted by teach-in - makes it ideal for level con- trol tasks in a wide variety of vessels. A sturdy one-piece ABS housing provides the
perfect packaging for the sofisticated microprocessor controlled and digitally filtered sensor electronics. Excellent EMC performance and precision are typical features of this sensor based on true distance measurement.
Square 80 mm ABS housing • Sensing distance: 600 - 6000 mm • Remote Teach by wire • Outputs: Analog 0-10 V or 4-20 mA • Setup of positive or negative slope • Power supply: 15 to 30 VDC • 8° beam angle • Protection: Short-circuit, reverse polarity, transients • Protection degree IP 65 • M12 plug, 5 pin


Level Switches in various housing styles and materials.

Astro 2 Series: Wet Rotor Circulators

A hydronic circulator that conserves energy and eliminates maintenance. Armstrong’s Astro 2 Circulator is intended for circulating water or ethylene glycol solutions in closed hydronic or solar heating systems. It is designed with no mechanical seals or couplers to replace, and no lubrication is required. The Astro 2 series is available in three material constructions for residential, small industrial and commercial installations. Choose from cast iron or lead free bronze or stainless steel models for solar and domestic applications.


  • Efficient/Quiet Operation
  • Universal Flange to Flange Dimension
  • Cast Iron or Lead Free Bronze or Stainless Steel Construction
  • ETL Listed (conforms to UL and certifies to CSA)


  • No mechanical seals to leak
  • No couplers to break
  • No lubrication
  • 3 speed selection
  • Removable check valve (except on sweat connection pumps)
  • Direct replacement of Armstrong and over 90 competitive circulators
  • Vent plug for initial purging if required
  • Thermally protected motor

Astro 225BS 1/2” SWT

Astro 225BS 3/4” SWT

Astro 220SSU

Astro 225SSU

Astro 230SS

Astro 250SS

Astro 230CI

Astro 230CI-R

Astro 250CI

Astro 250CI-R

Armstrong Astro 2 3-speed circulators provide unmatched performance over a wide range of head and flow requirements. The 3-speed design allows users to match the requirements of an installation exactly, and also helps with:

Reduced Inventory – the complete range of 10 Astro 2 3-speed circulators replaces 93 models of competitors’ pumps

Adaptability – After a circulator is installed you might need to change the performance to accommodate:

• Over/under estimated system resistance in the original design • Increased number of zones due to a building addition •Addition of system elements such as an indirect hot water tank or spa

With Astro 2 3-speed units installed you can easily change the operating speed to handle these changed performance requirements.

reduced installation costs

Astro 2 circulators (except sweat connection models) include a removable check valve that eliminates the need for additional check valves in the system. For replacement installations, the check valve can be removed as required.

compliance with lead-free regulations

Lead-free bronze and stainless steel models of Astro 2 certified <0.25 weighted average percent lead and complies with California Health and Safety Code Section 116875 (commonly known as AB1953).


Reduce your inventory with a variety of performance curves. Ten pumps replace 93 circulators. Correct design issues in the field by adjusting the circulator output.

removable check valve

Reduce costs by eliminating multiple system check valves. Helps prevent reverse flow and induced heat migration.

easy connection

Models are available with union, sweat or flange connections. Models are also available with rotated flanges for installation in tight locations, where clearance is an issue.