## Sunday, April 29, 2012

### Penberthy Jet Pump Applications

Flow Factor Sells Penberthy Jet Pumps / Eductors

Terms
• Motive - the fluid used to "power" the eductor
• Suction - the secondary fluid being educted
• Discharge - the combined motive/suction fluid stream exiting the eductor
LL Jet - Liquid motive / Low Head
LM Jet - Liquid Motive / Medium Head
LH Jet - Liquid Motive / High Head
GL Jet - Gas Motive / Low Head
GH Jet - Gas Motive / High Head
ELL Jet - Heating Liquids
CTE Jet - In Tank mixing and heating eductor

Below are listed some of the problems encountered by our users in different industries and the solutions that were used to solve these problems. These industries include:
 Water/Waste Water Treatment Marina Automotive Food Processing Environmental Water Collection Pits Railway Mixing/Blending Barge Terminal Tank Heating Brewery Transporting Solids Corn Processing Heating Systems

Water/Waste Water Treatment:
Problem A water treatment plant wanted to entrain activated carbon as a filtering media to treat and regenerate application material to meet EPA regulations prior to disposing in a sewer.
Solution A Penberthy Model ELL was used to hydraulically transport the carbon media. Model LM could also have been used
Problem A treatment facility needed to pump and mix a variety of chemicals in a water stream to control pH levels.
Solution Using a Penberthy L Series liquid motive jet, they were able to do this in-line

Automotive Industry:
Problem Assemblers had to hold windshields in place during assembly.
Solution Using a Penberthy G Series jet, they were able to generate a vacuum to hold the windshield while it was positioned.
Problem A tire manufacturer needed to evacuate steam from a bladder in order for the tire to be removed from the tire press.
Solution A Penberthy G Series jet was installed to evacuate the steam and speed up the production cycle.
Problem Settling of materials in electrocoat and pretreatment tanks in automotive paint lines had to be eliminated in order to improve overall paint quality.
Solution Installation of Penberthy Model TME (Tank Mixing Eductors) provided low electrical conductivity and smooth mixing flow characteristics, improving paint finishes.

Environmental Ground Water Testing:
Problem A chemist required an efficient method of extracting ground water samples for chemical analysis.
Solution Using Penberthy Series L jet pumps, samples were taken and transferred to holding tanks for evaluation and testing.

Railcar Cleaning:
Problem Railcars need an effective method of removing a variety of powdered materials.
SolutionA simple and effective method would be to use a Penberthy GST Model jet using compressed air as the motive

Barge Terminals/Barge Cleaning:
Problem Barge terminal operators need a cost-effective method of removing rainwater from barges.
SolutionPenberthy Model L Series jet pumps are used to hydraulically pump the water from the barge. This water is transported into another barge for testing and treatment before being discharged back into the river.

Breweries:
Problem A brewery needed to heat liquids as part of the pasteurization process.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy Model SRH, the liquid was heated and pasteurized in-line. In this application, processing was improved by 30%.

Corn Processing Plants:
Problem A corn processing plant needed an inexpensive and efficient method or removing carbon dust from the bottom of their furnaces.
SolutionThey attached a perforated pipe to the suction inlet of a Penberthy Model LM jet, and using water as the motive, a vacuum was created sucking up the carbon dust.

Plastics Industries:
Problem The company needed an effective means of detecting leaks in molds.
SolutionBy using a Penberthy Model LM jet with the suction hooked up to the mold, they were able to generate a vacuum which detected leaks in the mold or seals.

Boat Docks:
Problem Boats sitting in a marina during the winter months became immobilized due to ice buildup.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy Model CTE, warmer water was brought to the surface preventing the water from freezing.

Food Processing:
Problem A processor potato chips wanted to heat water in a blancher to remove potato skins.
SolutionA Penberthy Model SRH was installed at the bottom of a tank. The water draining from the tank had sufficient head pressure to mix with the steam to allow recirculation back into the tank as well as reaching desired temperature.

Water Collection Pits:
Problem A number of businesses and homeowners needed an effective way to remove water from sump pits during flooding.
SolutionPenberthy Sump Drainer and L Series jets provided reliable methods of removing the water using no electrical power.

Mixing/Blending Applications:
Problem A storage tank manufacturer needed to move dry solids - diatomaceous earth - into a blending tank.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy Model LM with a Penberthy Washdown Hopper, they were able to mix the earth with the motive fluid and transport it into the blending tank. Once in the tank, a Penberthy Model CTE was used to provide continuous in-tank mixing.

Tank Heating:
Problem A company needed to maintain a minimum liquid temperature in their tanks, regardless of outside ambient temperatures.
Solution Using a Penberthy Model CTE as an in-tank heater in conjunction with a simple temperature control system, steam was mixed with the liquid when the outside temperature fell below a certain level.

Transporting Solids:
Problem A manufacturer of silo systems for wastewater treatment that used wetting cones with powdered activated carbon needed a means of moving the resulting slurry.
Solution By installing various Penberthy Series L liquid motive jets at the bottom of each cone, the manufacturer was able to move the slurry away using water as the motive.

Heating Systems:
Problem Condensation pits associated with underground heating systems needed to be emptied.
Solution A Penberthy model 2-R Sump Drainer was installed in each pit. This stand-alone system uses water as the motive and requires no electrical power.

Visit Flow Factor for your Penberthy Jet Pump Needs

### Cv Flow Factor - Flow Coefficient for Valves

Flow Factor sells Solenoid valves, Jet Pumps and Control Valves.

The Flow Coefficient or Flow Factor is used to size and compare the flow rate through valves and other devices used for moving liquids and gases.

The flow coefficient - Cv - let us compare flow capacities of valves at different sizes, types and manufacturers. The flow coefficient is in general determined experimentally and express the flow capacity in imperial units - GPM (US gallons per minute) of water that a valve will pass for a pressure drop of 1 lb/in2 (psi).

The flow factor - Kv - is also in common use, but express the capacity in SI-units.

The flow coefficient - Cv - required for a specific application can be estimated by using specific formulas for the different fluids or gases. With the estimated Cv value - the correct valve can be selected from the manufacturers catalogues.

In more practical terms, the flow coefficient Cv is the volume (in US gallons) of water at 60°F that will flow per minute through a valve with a pressure drop of 1 psi across the valve.
The use of the flow coefficient offers a standard method of comparing valve capacities and sizing valves for specific applications that is widely accepted by industry.

### Flow Coefficient - Cv - for Liquids

For liquids the flow coefficient - Cv - expresses the flow capacity in gallons per minute (GPM) of 60oF water with a pressure drop of 1 psi (lb/in2).

#### Flow expressed by volume

Cv = q (SG / dp)1/2         (1)
where
q = water flow (US gallons per minute)
SG = specific gravity (1 for water)
dp = pressure drop (psi)

$C_v = F \sqrt{\dfrac{SG}{\Delta P}}$

### Flow Coefficient - Cv - for Air and other Gases

Note! - there is a difference between critical and non critical pressure drops.

For critical pressure drop, where the outlet pressure - po - from the control valve is less than 53% of the inlet pressure - pithe flow coefficient can be expressed as:
Cv = q [SG (T + 460)]1/2/ 660 pi         (5)
where
q = free gas per hour, standard cubic feet per hour (Cu.ft/h)
SG = specific gravity of flowing gas gas relative to air at 14.7 psia and 60oF
T = flowing air or gas temperature (oF)
pi = inlet gas absolute pressure (psia)

For non critical pressure drop, where the outlet pressure - po - from the control valve is greater than 53% of the inlet pressure - pi, the flow coefficient can be expressed as:
Cv = q [SG (T + 460)]1/2/ [1360 (dp po)1/2]         (5b)
where
dp = (pi - po)
po = outlet gas absolute pressure (psia)

Specific Gravities of common materials and mediums

 Alcohol 0.82 Mercury 13.95 Paraffin 0.8 Petrol 0.72 Water (4oC) 1 Sea water 1.02 Aluminum 2.72 Brass 8.48 Cadmium 8.57 Chromium 7.03 Copper 8.79 Cast iron 7.2 Lead 11.35 Nickel 8.73 Nylon 1.12 PVC 1.36 Rubber 0.96 Steel 7.82 Tin 7.28 Zinc 7.12 Acetylene 0.0017 Dry air 0.0013 Carbon dioxide 0.00198 Carbon monoxide 0.00126 Hydrogen 9e-05 Nitrogen 0.00125 Oxygen 0.00143

www.flowfactor.com
866-360-9830

## Saturday, April 14, 2012

### American Meter Gas Meters In Stock

Flow Factor Stocks Elster American Meter Gas Meters

Elster American Meter is the industry’s leading supplier of diaphragm gas meters. With models to meet your applications from domestic service to large industrial uses, Elster American Meter diaphragm meters have an outstanding record for durability and reliability.

 AC-250-10#TC AMCO METER, 1", ODOMETER INDEX AC-250-5#TC AMCO AC-250, 5# WP, TEMP. COMP AC-630-25#TC AMCO AC-630 METER, 25#, TC AL-425-10# AMCO METER, 1-1/4, W/ODOMETER AL-425-10#TC AMCO AL-425, 10#WP, TEMP. COMP AL-425-25# AMCO METER, 1-1/4, W/ODOMETER

 AL-425-25#TC AMCO AL-425, 25# WP, TEMP. COM
 AM-250-5#TC AMCO METER, TC, 5#

 2M-CID-2" AMCO RPM METER WITH

 2M-MTCI-2"-TWELL AMCO 2" 2M RPM W/ MERCURY TCI

 3.5M-CTR-2"-TWELL AMCO 3.5M RPM WITH TWELL

 3.5M-MTCI-2"-TWELL AMCO 2" 3.5M RPM W/MERCURY TCI

 5.5M-CTR-2"-TWELL AMCO 5.5M RPM W/TWELL

 5.5M-CTR-3"-TWELL AMCO 5.5M RPM W/TWELL

 5.5M-MTCI-3"-TWELL AMCO 3" 5.5M RPM W/MERCURY TCI